What is Android?
Android is an open source project (led by Google but it doesn't belong to them) called AOSP (Android Open Source Project). Google uses this project as a base to create its version of Android, which is then used by the other manufacturers.
As an OS, Android's job is to act as a translator between you and your gadget. When you take a photo, Android provides the button you tap and tells the phone what to do when you tap it. When you make or receive a call, Android tells your phone how to do that. When you play a game, Android tells the game what movements you’re making and what buttons you’re pressing. It’s like Windows, but for mobile devices.
The Android software itself is developed in conjunction with Google, who releases major updates to the platform every year. Manufacturers which run Android on their phones include Samsung, Huawei, Sony, Lenovo, HTC, LG and many others; it's currently operational on more than one billion devices.
The Android mascot is a green robot: you might have seen it around.